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apologists, Christian  

Wolfram Kinzig

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The modern collective term appears to go back to F. Morel (Corpus Apologetarum, 1615) and P. Maran (1742; cf. PG 6). The idea as such, however, is much older, as can be seen from the codex Paris. gr. ... More

nimbus  

George M. A. Hanfmann and Roger Ling

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A circular cloud of light which surrounds the heads of gods or emperors (Serv. on Aen. 2. 616, 3. 587) and heroes. The belief that light radiates from a sacred or divine person is a common one and ... More

pagan, paganism  

Philip Rousseau

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Latin word paganus means literally “one who inhabits a *pagus”: see Festus, 247Lindsay, and *Servius's comment on *Virgil's phrase pagos et compita circum (G. 2. 382). By imperial times (e.g. ... More

possession, religious  

H. S. Versnel

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
That a human being might become possessed by a supernatural power was a fairly common ancient belief. The effect might be a prophetic frenzy as in the case of the trance (see delphic oracle). Plato ... More

Vatican  

Bryan Ward-Perkins

Vatican, an extramural area of the city of Rome, on the right bank of the *Tiber around the mons Vaticanus. In the early empire the Vatican was the site of an imperial park (the horti ... More

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