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crucifixion  

George Ronald Watson and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Crucifixion seems to have been a form of punishment borrowed by the Romans from elsewhere, probably *Carthage. As a Roman penalty it is first certainly attested in the *Punic Wars. It was normally ... More

Ioannes Damascenus, priest-monk and theologian, 650/675?–c. 750 CE  

Andrew Louth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Little is known of the life of John of Damascus, save what can be deduced from his taciturn writings and a few references to him in chronicles; the later Greek life is unreliable. He seems to have ... More

Smyrna  

William Moir Calder, John Manuel Cook, Antony Spawforth, and Charlotte Roueché

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Smyrna (mod. Izmir), a city on the west coast of Asia Minor at the head of the Hermaic Gulf, the natural outlet of the trade of the *Hermus valley and within easy reach of the *Maeander valley. Old ... More

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