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freedom in the ancient world  

K. Raaflaub

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
On the individual and social levels, the distinction between free and unfree is as old as slavery, and individual or collective freedom from dues, taxes, and other obligations as old as communities ... More

neutrality  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Neutrality, a word with no single Greek or Latin equivalent. In Greek, the idea is expressed by terms meaning e.g. ‘keeping quiet’, ‘helping neither side’. Individuals may be neutral between parties, ... More

police  

Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In any discussion of police it is necessary to distinguish between the function of policing, that is, maintaining public order and enforcing the law, and the existence of a specialized agency of ... More

punishment, Greek and Roman practice  

Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
According to *Cicero (Ad Brut. 23. 3), it was a dictum of *Solon's that a community was held together by rewards and penalties, and the ascription seems plausible, in so far as Archaic Greek ... More

war, rules of  

Jakob Aall Ottesen Larsen and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
These, like much other international law (see law, international), depended on custom and showed a constant conflict between the higher standards of optimistic theory and the harsher measures ... More

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