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Aezani  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Was the most important city of northern *Phrygia in Roman times. The well-preserved ruins of the site are dominated by the peripteral (colonnaded) Ionic temple of *Zeus, dedicated under Domitian in ... More

Carthage, topography  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Carthage was founded on part of a large peninsula which stretched eastwards from lagoons into the gulf of Tunis; the isthmus linking it to the mainland further west is c. 5 km. (3 mi.) wide at its ... More

crucifixion  

George Ronald Watson and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Crucifixion seems to have been a form of punishment borrowed by the Romans from elsewhere, probably *Carthage. As a Roman penalty it is first certainly attested in the *Punic Wars. It was normally ... More

murrina vasa  

David Edward Eichholz and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Murrina vasa, luxury tableware imported into Rome from the middle east and, being extremely costly, a status symbol. According to *Pliny(1), the chief source (HN 37.18.22), it was made ... More

navies  

Philip de Souza

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The oldest navy in the ancient world was probably that of the Egyptian pharaohs; see egypt. Very little is known about Egyptian naval development, however, until the *Saites (672–525 bce), one of ... More

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