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Achaemenids  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
The term, as used by Herodotus (1. 125), refers to one of the three clans (phrētrē) of the Pasargadae tribe to which the Persian kings belonged; its eponymous ancestor was supposedly Achaemenes (Hdt. ... More

Akkadian  

Stephanie Dalley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
(1) Term used until 1869 for the language now known as *Sumerian. (2) Term used since 1869 for the East Semitic language that is also known by its northern and southern dialects as Assyrian and ... More

Aramaic  

J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aramaic, a *Semitic language, was used in the ancient near east from early in the 1st millennium bce and through the Roman period. Originating in upper Mesopotamia, it is first known ... More

Bactria  

Pierre Briant and Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Enormous region lying (roughly) between the *Oxus (Amu-Darya) to the north and the Hindu Kush to the south; the term occasionally also includes Sogdiana to the north (Tadjikistan/Uzbekistan). The ... More

camels  

John Kinloch Anderson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Camels, long domesticated in Arabia and neighbouring lands, were unfamiliar in Anatolia in 546 bce when *Cyrus (1)'s baggage-camels terrified the Lydian horses (Hdt. 1. 80). These may have been ... More

Carrhae  

Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
Carrhae (Akkadian Harran, Biblical Haran, mod. Harran, SE Turkey), a city of north *Mesopotamia about 40 km. (25 mi.) south-west of *Edessa, an ancient cult centre of the moon-god Sin. The temple of ... More

cuneiform  

Stephanie Dalley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cuneiform is wedge-shaped writing thought to have developed from impressions of clay tokens and incised pictograms by impressing the triangular cross-section of a reed upon clay. First ... More

Euphrates  

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Near East
The longest river of western Asia, and the more westerly of the Two Rivers of *Mesopotamia. Originating in the Armenian highlands from its two headstreams Kara Su (Pyxurates) and Murad Su (Arsanias), ... More

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