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Athenaeus (2) Mechanicus  

Eric William Marsden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Athenaeus (2) Mechanicus, author of an extant work on siege-engines (Περὶ μηχανημάτων; see artillery; siegecraft), perhaps to be dated in the 1st cent. bce or ce.

baking, Roman  

Jared T. Benton

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The earliest Roman bakers almost certainly made bread for their own households, but not for sale to the public. Pliny the Elder tells us in his Natural History (18.28) that among the quirites of ... More

Cetius Faventinus, Marcus  

Leofranc Holford-Strevens

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Marcus Cetius Faventinus, (3rd–4th cent. ce), made a revised abridgement of *Vitruvius for builders of private houses; his work was used by *Palladius (1) and *Isidorus (2).

Gargilius Martialis, Quintus, early to mid-3rd cent. CE  

M. Stephen Spurr

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Quintus Gargilius Martialis was famed for his work on *gardens (Serv. on G. 4. 147; Cassiod.Inst. 1. 28. 5). Part of the De hortis is extant, while two other fragments, on the medical properties of ... More

glass, Roman  

H.E.M. Cool

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Glass came of age during the Roman period. Within the ancient world it had been used from the mid-second millennium bce onwards, but only for jewellery and luxury items like small perfume ... More

lead  

Oliver Davies and David William John Gill

Is mined in part for the extraction of *silver from its ores. Some of the major sources in the Greek world were located at *Laurium in *Attica, on *Siphnos, and in *Macedonia. There were extensive ... More

lighthouses  

Nicholas Purcell

Tall monuments which might function as navigational marks were an early feature of ancient harbour-architecture (Archaic examples are known on *Thasos). The idea became celebrated with the building ... More

marble  

Donald Emrys Strong and Hazel Dodge

Under μάρμαρος, marmor, the ancients included granites, porphyries, and all stones capable of taking a high polish. In the third millennium bce the white marbles of the Greek islands were used for ... More

metallurgy, Roman  

Jonathan Edmondson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In the Roman period most metals were obtained not in a natural state directly from mining, but as a result of metallurgical processing of compound mineral deposits (ores). Ores, once mined, were ... More

pastoralism, Roman  

M. Stephen Spurr

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pastoralism, whether good, bad, or indifferent, provided the most lucrative returns, according to *Cato (Censorius) (Cicero, Off. 2. 89; Columella, Rust. 6 praef. 4–5; Plin.HN 8. 29–30). Thus ... More

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