At Rome colourful *circus spectacles (especially chariot-racing) and *ball games were the most popular sporting activities. But Augustus promoted traditional athletics, staging athletics competitions in the Campus Martius and exhibition-running in the Circus (Suet. Aug. 43. 1–2); he himself was keen on watching boxing (45. 2). Ultra-distance running was also practised: ‘Some men can do 160 [Roman] miles in the Circus’ (Plin. HN 7. 84). Interest in athletics was maintained by the establishing of Greek-style games at Rome and elsewhere. In (?)4
Piero Treves, Cyril Bailey, and Andrew Lintott
John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Barbara Levick
After the deaths of persons deemed by the senate enemies of the state, measures to erase their memory might follow. Originally there was no set package, as the phrase implies (cf. Ulp.Dig. 24. 1. 32. 7) but a repertoire (Tac.Ann. 3. 17. 8–18. 1): images might be destroyed (*Sejanus; *Valeria Messal(l)ina), and their display penalized (L. *Appuleius Saturninus, 98
Ludwig Alfred Moritz
Dicing with six-sided dice (κύβοι, tesserae) or four-sided knucklebones (ἀστράγαλοι, tali; natural or manufactured from e.g. ivory) was a popular amusement in both Greece and Rome, either by itself or in association with board-games. In Rome, where even emperors (esp. *Claudius) were keen players, high sums were often staked; and dicing was officially illegal except at the Saturnalia (see
Susan M. Treggiari
English ‘family’ has connotations which have changed during its long history and vary according to context. Biologically, an individual human being is related to parents, through them to ascendants, aunts, uncles, siblings, and cousins, and may, by sexual intercourse with someone of the opposite sex, in turn become a parent, linked by blood to descendants. Blood relations for Romans were cognati, the strongest ties normally being with parents and children and the siblings with whom an individual grew up. Relationship established through the sexual tie of marriage was adfinitas; kin by marriage were adfines (in strict usage from engagement until dissolution of the marriage). Law initially stressed blood relationship through males: agnati (father's other children, father's siblings, father's brothers' children, a man's own children, etc. ) inherited on intestacy. By entering *manus (marital power), a married woman came into the same agnate group as husband and children; if she did not, her legal ties and rights were with her natal family.