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aes  

Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aes, bronze, also more loosely copper or brass, hence (a) money, coinage, pay, period for which pay is due, campaign; (b) document on bronze. The earliest Roman monetary ... More

bee-keeping  

John Ellis Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Bee-keeping had the same importance for antiquity that sugar production has now. Honey-gathering preceded the culture of bees which began perhaps in the mesolithic period. The evidence for ... More

credit  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Credit, the temporary transfer of property rights over money or goods, was central to the functioning of ancient society. The great majority of credit operations would have been informal transactions ... More

euergetism  

Antony Spawforth

Neologism of French scholarship (évergétisme, from εὐεργέτης, ‘benefactor’) to describe the socio-political phenomenon of voluntary gift-giving to the ancient community. Embracing the beneficence of ... More

food supply, Greek  

Lin Foxhall

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
For Greek city-states of the Archaic and Hellenistic periods the ethos of self-sufficiency (autarkeia) dominated the ideology of food supply. In reality few Greek cities ever outgrew the ... More

glass  

Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Glass (ὕαλος (also 'rock crystal'), vitrum). The art of producing a vitreous surface on stone, powdered quartz (faience), or clay was known in pre-dynastic Egypt and passed to Crete during the second ... More

negotiatores  

Jeremy Paterson and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Negotiatores, the businessmen of the Roman world. In literary sources of the republican period, most notably *Cicero, negotiatores, or people who negotia gerunt (‘conduct business deals’), are found ... More

olive  

Lin Foxhall

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The olive is probably native to the Mediterranean region. It is long-lived and highly drought-resistant, though sensitive to frost, and thrives best at relatively low altitudes. Olives ... More

peasants  

Lin Foxhall

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Peasants are like postholes: it is much easier to see where they ought to have been in the classical world than where they actually were. By ‘peasants’ most scholars have meant, small-scale, ... More

poverty  

Neville Morley

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Discussions of poverty in past societies almost always begin with the question of definition, and the problem of cross-cultural comparison. By most modern standards—in terms of education or health, ... More

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