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alcoholism, Greek  

John Maxwell O'Brien and Barney Rickenbacker

The ancient Greeks were unfamiliar with modern concepts of alcoholism, but they were well aware of self-destructive drinking and the effects of habitual drunkenness. In the Odyssey, *Homer makes a ... More

Antigonus (4), of Carystus, writer and bronze-worker, fl. c. 240 BCE  

Frank William Walbank and Andrew F. Stewart

Antigonus (4) of Carystus (fl. c. 240 BCE), writer and bronzeworker, lived at Athens and (apparently) at *Pergamum. An inferior anecdotal collection survives: (a) Ἱστοριῶν ... More

Biton, 3rd or 2nd cent. BCE  

Simon Hornblower

Biton (Βίτων) (3rd or 2nd cent. bce), the author of a small extant work on siege-engines, Κατασκευαὶ πολεμικῶν ὀργάνων καὶ καταπαλτικῶν (‘The Construction of War-machines and Catapults’; ... More

books, Greek and Roman  

H. Maehler

Books existed in *Egypt long before they came into use in Greece. Systems of writing had been invented and developed for administrative purposes in both Egypt and *Mesopotamia by c.3000 bce. While ... More

epigraphy, Greek  

H. W. Pleket

The study of inscriptions engraved on stone or metal in Greek letters. Coin-legends (see coinage, greek) are for the numismatist, whereas painted mummy-labels and ink-written texts on *ostraca, ... More

horse- and chariot-races  

John Kinloch Anderson

In the funeral games for *Patroclus the chariot-race is the premier event (Hom.Il. 23. 262–538). The heroes drive two-horse chariots normally used in battle over an improvised cross-country course, ... More

libraries  

P. J. Parsons

By the end of the 5th cent. bce, books were in general circulation, even if some regarded them as a fad of intellectuals like *Euripides (Ar. Ran. 943, cf. fr. 506 KA); Athens had booksellers (Eup. ... More

masks  

Richard Seaford

Masks, as in many other pre-modern cultures, were used in Greece and Rome in cult and in dramatic representations. We have terracotta representations of grotesque masks worn in adolescent rites of ... More

masturbation  

Kelly L. Wrenhaven

In ancient Greece and Rome, masturbation was viewed with good-humored disdain. Although it was not apparently subject to the same kinds of scathing attacks that Greek comedy makes on male same-sex ... More

Museum  

Theodore Johannes Haarhoff and Nigel Wilson

Museum (Μουσεῖον), originally a place connected with the *Muses or the arts inspired by them. *Euripides speaks of the μουσεῖα of birds, the places where they sing. When a religious meaning was ... More

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